In general, the term credit in the artistic or intellectual sense refers to an acknowledgement of those who contributed to a work, whether through ideas or in a more direct sense.
In the creative arts, credits are an acknowledgement of those who participated in the production. They are often shown at the end of movies and on CD jackets. In film, video, television, theater, etc., credits means the list of actors and behind-the-scenes staff who contributed to the production.
In non-fiction writing, especially academic works, it is generally considered important to give credit to sources of information and ideas. Failure to do so often gives rise to charges of plagiarism, and "piracy" of intellectual rights such as the right to receive a royalty for having written. In this sense the financial and individual meanings are linked.
Academic papers generally contain a lengthy section of footnotes or citations. Such detailed crediting of sources provides readers with an opportunity to discover more about the cited material. It also provides a check against misquotation, as it's easy for an attributed quote to be checked when the reference is available. All of this is thought to improve integrity of the instructional capital conveyed, which may be quite fragile, and easy to misinterpret or to misapply.
A fictional currency is some form of defined or alluded currency in works of fiction. The names of such units of currency are sometimes based on extant or historic currencies (e.g. "Altairian dollars" or "Earth yen") while others, such as "Kalganids" in Asimov's Foundation series, may be wholly invented. A particularly common type, especially in science fiction, is electronically managed "credits". In some works of fiction, exchange media other than money are used. These are not currency as such, but rather nonstandard media of exchange used to avoid the difficulties of ensuring "double coincidence of wants" in a barter system.
Authors have to take care when naming fictional currencies because of the associations between currency names and countries; recognizable names for currencies of the future (e.g. dollar or yen) may be used to imply how history has progressed, but would appear out of place in an entirely alien civilization. Historical fiction may need research. Writers need not explain the exact value of their fictional currencies or provide an exchange rate to modern money; they may rely on the intuitive grasp of their readers, for instance that one currency unit is probably of little value, but that millions of units will be worth a lot.
Fake may refer to:
In other uses:
Fake? is a Japanese alternative rock band formed in 2001 by Ken Lloyd and Inoran. Their music has been described as alternative mixed with electronic sounds. Their sound has also been called "Mixture Rock" as well as an "alternative punk rock mix." Lyrics are mainly in English and sometimes in Japanese.
In late 2001 Oblivion Dust vocalist Ken Lloyd joined up with Luna Sea guitarist Inoran and formed Fake?. They didn't go public until early 2002, though, where the two of them held a secret two-day "Show Case" event at Liquidroom Shinjuku. A short time later they released their first single "Taste Maximum." They released another single "Someday" and their first album "Breathe In..." which reached the top 30 in the Oricon charts despite a lack of promotion, major magazine interviews, or photo-sessions. Their respective musical influences can be heard throughout the album: slightly more trip hop songs were composed by Inoran, slightly more Punk rock songs composed by Ken. Then, they took part at the Summer Sonic Festival 2002 in Tokyo, Osaka, and Hong Kong. They also played in gigs at Nagoya Diamond Hall, Osaka Namba Hatch and the Akasaka BLITZ. On November 2, the band started its Live Tour, doing 7 concerts in 5 towns. The final concert of this tour on November 24 at Zepp Tokyo, was later broadcast in Japan by WOWOW.
Fake is a seven-volume BL manga by Sanami Matoh. The story focuses in a romance between Randy "Ryo" Maclean and Dee Laytner, two New York City detectives from the fictitious 27th precinct. An anime version of the fifth act (or chapter) from the second manga is also available, in the form of an OVA.
Randy "Ryo" Maclean, a half-Japanese cop, is new to the 27th Precinct, and he is partnered with Dee Laytner, an American with an overconfident attitude. The seven-volume manga details their adventures as police in a violent city and delves into each one's past, as well as developing their slowly building relationship. The final volume contains yaoi, and the first six volumes are mostly of a less intense, shōnen-ai nature.
Other noteworthy characters are Bikky and Carol, two kids who have lost their families and have been taken in by Ryo, and subsequently by Dee. A few of the acts focus on the very sweet young love that develops between those two. JJ and Drake are other detectives from the 27th, and JJ, completely obsessed with Dee, becomes quite jealous of Ryo, and that of course makes for some interesting moments throughout the manga, although JJ moves his attentions to Drake towards the end of the series. Berkeley Rose has a similar fancy for Ryo. He isn't shy about it either, going so far as to steal a kiss whenever possible, much to the irritation of both Dee and Ryo.